Drug Offences

In Canada, drug offences refer to criminal offences related to the possession, trafficking, manufacturing, importing, exporting, or distribution of controlled substances. These offences are governed by the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), which sets out the legal framework for regulating controlled substances in the country.

Under the CDSA, controlled substances are categorized into different schedules based on their potential for abuse, medical use, and public health implications. The schedules range from Schedule I (the most strictly controlled substances) to Schedule V (substances with the lowest potential for abuse).

Common examples of drug offences in Canada include:

Possession (Section 4(1) CDSA):

It is illegal to possess controlled substances unless you have a valid prescription from a licensed healthcare professional. Possession can be charged as a summary conviction offence or an indictable offence, depending on the circumstances and the type of drug involved.

Trafficking (Section 5(1) CDSA):

Trafficking involves the sale, distribution, or delivery of controlled substances. The penalties for trafficking are more severe than those for possession and can vary based on the type and quantity of drugs involved.

Possession for the Purpose of Trafficking (Section 5(2) CDSA):

This offence involves possessing controlled substances with the intent to sell or distribute them to others.

Importing and Exporting (Section 6 CDSA):

Importing or exporting controlled substances without proper authorization is also a criminal offence under the CDSA.

Production (Section 7 CDSA):

Production includes the creation, synthesis, or cultivation of controlled substances. This offence includes activities such as operating drug labs or growing marijuana illegally.


Engaging in a conspiracy to commit any of the above drug offences is also considered a crime.


Penalties for drug offences can range from fines and probation to lengthy imprisonment, depending on the seriousness of the offence and the offender’s criminal history. In some cases, individuals charged with drug offences may be eligible for alternative sentencing or diversion programs, especially for first-time offenders or those struggling with substance abuse issues. Drug Treatment Court can also be an option for offenders who are interested in a long-term rehabilitative solution.

It is essential to seek legal counsel from a qualified criminal defence lawyer if you or someone you know is facing drug offence charges. The lawyers at Cooper Lord Law can provide guidance, protect your rights, and work toward the best possible outcome for your case.

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